首页 | 供应信息 | 求购信息  | 下载系统 | 新闻系统 | 企业信息 | 产品信息 | 工控知道 | 论文信息 | 展会信息论坛
作者: 发布时间:2009-11-28 来源: 繁体版
嵌入式系统常用词汇统计表 AASIC(专用集成电路) Application-Specific Integrated Circuit. A piece of custom-designed hardware in a chip. 专用集成电路。一个在一个芯片上定制设计的硬件。 addre

  嵌入式系统常用词汇统计表 



A



ASIC(专用集成电路)
Application-Specific Integrated Circuit. A piece of custom-designed hardware in a chip.
专用集成电路。一个在一个芯片上定制设计的硬件。



address bus (地址总线)
A set of electrical lines connected to the processor and all of the peripherals withwhich itcommunicates. The address bus is used by the processor to select aspecific memory location or register within a particular peripheral. If the address bus contains n electrical lines, the processor can uniquely address up to 2^n such locations.
一个连接处理器与所有外设的,用来通讯的电子线路集。地址总线被处理器用来选择在特定外设中的存储器地址或寄存器。如果地址总线有n条电子线路,处理器能唯一寻址高达2^n的地址空间。



application software(应用软件)
Describes software modules specific to a particular embedded project. Theapplication software is unlikely to be reusable across embedded platforms, simplybecause each embedded system has a different application.



用来描述一个特定的嵌入式项目中的某一软件模块。应用软件不象可重用的交叉嵌入式平台,只是因为每一个嵌入式系统有不同的应用软件。



assembler(汇编编译器)
A software development tool that translates human-readable assembly languageprograms into machine-language instructions that the processor can understandand execute.
一个能把人可读的汇编语言程序转换到处理器可理解和运行的机器指令的软件开发工具。



assembly language(汇编语言)
A human-readable form of a processor"s instruction set. Most processor-specific functions must be written in assembly language.
一种人可读的处理器指令集的形式。大多数处理器相关的功能必须用汇编语言编写。



B
BSP(板卡支持包)
See board support package.
见board support package。



binary semaphore(二元信号)
A type of semaphore with just two states. Also called a mutex.
一种只有两种状态的信号。也叫互斥信号。



board support package(板卡支持包)
Part of a software package that is processor or platform-dependent. Typically,sample source code for the board support package is provided by the package developer. The sample code must be modified as necessary, compiled, and linked with the remainder of the software package. 
软件包的具有平台依赖性的那一部分。典型地,板卡支持包的样例源程序由包开发者提供。样例源程序必须能在需要时被修改、编译并与软件包的剩下的部分连接起来。



bond-out processor (外合处理器)
A special version of a processor that has some of the internal signals brought out to external pins. A bond-out processor is most often found within an emulator and is never intended to be used in a production system. 
   一种特殊版本的处理器,它有一些,内部的信号能传达到外置的针脚上。一个外合处理器绝大多数情况下只用在模拟器上,从来不会被特意用在产品系统上。



Breakpoint (断点)
A location in a program at which execution is to be stopped and control of the processor switched to the debugger. Mechanisms for creating and removing breakpoints are provided by most debugging tools.
   一个在程序中的地址,在那里程序的执行被停止,并且处理器的控制转换到了除错程序。大多数除错工具提供增加与删除一个断点的机制。



C
CISC(复杂指令集计算机)
Complex Instruction Set Computer. Describes the architecture of a processor family. CISC processors generally feature variable-length instructions, multiple addressing formats, and contain only a small number of general-purpose registers. Intel"s 80x86 family is the quintessential example of CISC. Contrast with RISC. 
   复杂指令集计算机。对一种处理器架构的描述。CISC处理器一般产生变长的指令,多种地址格式,并且仅仅有少量的通用寄存器。Intel的80x86家族是是典型的CISC处理器。相对于RISC而言。



CPU(中央处理器)
Central Processing Unit. The part of a processor that executes instructions.
中央处理器。处理器中执行指令的那一部分。



Compiler(编译器)
A software development tool that translates high-level language programs into the machine-language instructions that a particular processor can understand and execute. 
把高级编程语言程序转换到只有特定的处理器能了解和执行的机器指令的一种软件开发包。



context (上下文)
The current state of the processor"s registers and flags.
处理器当前的状态和标志。



context switch(上下文切换)
The process of switching from one task to another in a multitasking operating system. A context switch involves saving the context of the running task and restoring the previously-saved context of the other. The piece of code that does this is necessarily processor-specific.
在多任务操作系统中我一个任务切换到另一个的过程。上下文切换包括保存正在运行的任务的上下文和恢复早先保存的另一个任务的上下文。做这个工作的一段代码必须具有处理器特权。



counting semaphore(计数信号)
A type of semaphore that is used to track multiple resources of the same type. An attempt to take a counting semaphore is blocked only if all of the available resources are in use. Contrast with binary semaphore.
一种用来跟踪多个相同类型资源的信号灯。仅仅在所有可用的资源都被用完了时才阻塞。相对二元信号而言。



critical section(临界段)
A block of code that must be executed in sequence and without interruption to guarantee correct operation of the software. See also race condition. 
一段必须按次序执行的代码,并且不能被中断,否则不能保证软件正确地操作。参照:竞争状况。



cross-compiler(交叉编译器)
 A compiler that runs on a different platform than the one for which it produces object code. A cross-compiler runs on a host computer and produces object code for the target.
一个运行在不同的平台上的编译器,其中之一能产生目标代码。交叉编译器在主机上运行并且产生目标机的目标代码。



D
DMA(直接内存访问)
Direct Memory Access. A technique for transferring data directly between two peripherals (usually memory and an I/O device) with only minimal intervention by the processor. DMA transfers are managed by a third peripheral called a DMA controller. 
直接内存访问。一种直接在两个外设(通常是内存和I/O设备)之间进行数据传输的技术,它只要处理器最少的介入。DMA传输由叫DMA控制器的第三方外设进行管理。



DRAM(动态随机访问存储器)
Dynamic Random-Access Memory. A type of RAM that maintains its contents only as long as the data stored in the device is refreshed at regular intervals. The refresh cycles are usually performed by a peripheral called a DRAM controller.
动态随机访问存储器。一种RAM,存储在其设备中的数据被定期刷新时才能保存它的内容。刷新周期一般由一个叫DRAM控制器的外设完成。



Data bus(数据总线)
A set of electrical lines connected to the processor and all of the peripherals with which it communicates. When the processor wants to read (write) the contents of a memory location or register within a particular peripheral, it sets the address bus pins appropriately and receives (transmits) the contents on the data bus. 
连接处理器与所有外设进行通讯的电子线路集。当一个处理器想去写(读)某一特定外设中的存储器地址或寄存器中的内容时,处理器设置地址总线并在数据总线上接收(传输)内容。



Deadline(死线)
The time at which a particular set of computations must be completed. See also real-time system.
一个特定计算必须被完成的时间。请看实时系统。



Deadlock(死锁)
An unwanted software situation in which an entire set of tasks is blocked, waiting for an event that only a task within the same set can cause. If a deadlock occurs, the only solution is to reset the hardware. However, it is usually possible to prevent deadlocks altogether by following certain software design practices.
一种不希望出现的软件状态,在这个状态下,所有的任务因为等待一个只有在这些被阻塞任务之一才能产生的事件而被阻塞。如果死锁发生,唯一解决的方法是重启动硬件。但是,通过可靠的软件设计实践活动通常可以防止死锁的发生。



debug monitor(除错监视程序)
A piece of embedded software that has been designed specifically for use as a debugging tool. It usually resides in ROM and communicates with a debugger via a serial port or network connection. The debug monitor provides a set of primitive commands to view and modify memory locations and registers, create and remove breakpoints, and execute your program. The debugger combines these primitives to fulfill higher-level requests like program download and single-step.
嵌入式软件被特殊设计来作为除错工具的一部分。它一般被放在ROM中,通过串口或网络与除错器进行通讯。除错监视程序提供一个简单的命令集来显示和内存地址和寄存器、建立和移除断点,并且运行你的程序。除错监视器组合这些简单的命令去实现象程序下载各单步调试等高端的请求。



Debugger(除错器)
A software development tool used to test and debug embedded software. The debugger runs on a host computer and connects to the target through a serial port or network connection. Using a debugger you can download software to the target for immediate execution. You can also set breakpoints and examine the contents of specific memory locations and registers.
一个软件开发工具,被用来对嵌入式软件进行测试和除错。除错器在宿主机上运行并且通过串口或网络连接到目标机上。你能使用除错器下载软件到目标机并直接运行。你也可以设置断点并检查特定内存地址或寄存器的内容。



device driver(设备驱动程序)
A software module that hides the details of a particular peripheral and provides a high-level programming interface to it. 
  一个软件模块,它隐藏特定外设的细节并提供高级的外设编程接口。



device programmer(设备编程器)
A  tool for programming non-volatile memories and other electrically-programmable devices. Typically, the programmable device is inserted into a socket on the device programmer and the contents of a memory buffer are then transferred into it.
一种用来对不挥发内存和其他电可编程设备进行编程的工具。典型地,可编程设备被插到设备编程器的接口上,接着内存缓存器中的内容被传送到它里面。



digital signal processor(数字信号处理器)
A device that is similar to a microprocessor, except that the internal CPU has been optimized for use in applications involving discrete-time signal processing. In addition to standard microprocessor instructions, DSPs usually support a set of complex instructions to perform common signal-processing computations quickly.Common DSP families are TI"s 320Cxx and Motorola"s 5600x series.
   一种类似于微处理器的的设备,不同的是它内部的CPU被优化,用于特定的应用,如离散信号处理。除了标准的微处理器指令外,DSP常常支持复杂指令集去非常快地完成通用的信号处理计算。通用DSP家庭是TI的320Cxx和Motorola的5600x系列。



E



EEPROM(电可擦的,可编程的只读存储器)
Electrically Erasable, Programmable Read-Only Memory. (Pronounced"Double-E"-PROM.) A type of ROM that can be erased electronically.
电可擦的,可编程的只读存储器。一种ROM能被电擦除。



EPROM(可擦的,可编程的只读存储器)
Erasable, Programmable Read-Only Memory. A type of ROM that can be erased by exposing it to ultraviolet light. Once erased, an EPROM can be reprogrammed with the help of a device programmer.
一种可用紫外线擦除的存储器。一次擦除后,EPROM可以在设备编程器的帮助下被重编程。



embedded system(嵌入式系统)
A combination of computer hardware and software, and perhaps additional mechanical or other parts, designed to perform a dedicated function. In some cases, embedded systems are part of a larger system or product, as is the case of an anti-lock braking system in a car. Contrast with general-purpose computer. 
  计算机硬件和软件的结合体,或许还加上机械等其他部分,被设计来完成专门的功能。在一些情况下,嵌入式系统是一个大的系统或产品的一部分,就象汽车上的防抱死装置。与通用计算机相对。



Emulator(仿真器)
Short for In-Circuit Emulator (ICE). A debugging tool that takes the placeof-emulates-the processor on your target board. Emulators frequently incorporate a special "bond-out" version of the target processor that allows  you to observe and record its internal state as your program is executing
.  在线仿真器的简写。一个在你的目标板上放置仿真的处理器的调试工具。仿真器经常和一目标处理器的一种“外合”版本合在一起,这个版本的的处理器充许你运行程序时观察和记录它的内部状态。



Executable(可执行的)
A file containing object code that is ready for execution on the target. All that remains is to place the object code into a ROM or download it via a debugging tool. 
   一个包含准备在目标机上运行的目标代码的文件。放置目标代码到ROM中或通过调试工具下载。



F
Firmware(固件)
Embedded software that is stored as object code within a ROM. This name is most common among the users of digital signal processors.
是作为目标代码存贮在ROM中的嵌入式软件。这个名字在数字信号处理器的用户中相当流行。



flash memory (闪存)
A RAM-ROM hybrid that can be erased and rewritten under software control. Such devices are divided into blocks, called sectors, that are individually-erasable. Flash memory is common in systems that require nonvolatile data storage at very low cost. In some cases, a large fash memory may even be used instead of a disk-drive.
   一种RAM-ROM的混血儿,它能在软件的控制下被擦除和重写。一些设备被分成叫段组的块,能个别地可擦。闪存用在需要很便宜的非易失数据存贮器的地方,一个大容量的闪存甚至被用作磁盘驱动器。



G



general-purpose computer(通用计算机)
A combination of computer hardware and software that serves as a
general-purpose computing platform. For example, a personal computer. Contrast with embedded system.
当作通用计算平台的计算机硬件与软件的组合。例如,PC。相对于嵌入式计算机。
    
H
HLL
See high-level language.
查阅高级语言。



Heap(堆)
An area of memory that is used for dynamic memory allocation. Calls to malloc and free and the C++ operators new and delete result in run-time manipulation of the heap.
一块被用作动态内存分配的内存区域。调用malloc和free、C++的操作符new、delete在运行时进行堆的操作。



high-level language(高级语言)
A language, such as C or C++, that is processor-independent. When programming in a high-level language, it is possible to concentrate on algorithms and applications without worrying about the details of a particular processor. 
一种语言,象C或C++,是处理器独立的。当在高级语言上编程时,不需要考虑特定处理器的细节,只用关心算法和应用。 



Host(主机)
A general-purpose computer that communicates with the target via a serial port or network connection. This term is usually used to distinguish the computer on which the debugger is running from the embedded system that is being developed.
一台通用计算机,它通过串口或网络连接与目标机通讯。这处名词一般用来区别调试程序运行的计算机和被开发的嵌入式系统。



I
ICE
In-Circuit Emulator. See emulator.
在线仿真器。查阅仿真器。



I/O(输入/输出)
Input/Output. The interface between a processor and the world around it. The simplest examples are switches (inputs) and LEDs (outputs).
输入/输出。处理器与外界的交互界面。最简单的例子是开关(输入)和发光二级管(输出)。



I/O device(IO设备)
A piece of hardware that interfaces between the processor and the outside world. Common examples are switches and LEDs, serial ports, and network controllers. 
   一种介于处理器和外界之间的硬件设备。一般的实例是开关、LED、串口和网络控制器。



I/O map(I/O映射)
A table or diagram containing the name and address range of each peripheral addressable by the processor within the I/O space. I/O maps are a helpful aid in getting to know the target.
一张包含每个外设的名字和地址的表格或图表,可由处理器在I/O空间中设定地址。I/O映射对得知目标机情况非常有利。



I/O space(I/O空间)
A special memory region provided by some processors and generally reserved for the attachment of I/O devices. Memory locations and registers within an I/O space can be accessed only via special instructions. For example, processors in the 80x86 family have special I/O space instructions called in and out. Contrast with memory space.
一个由处理器提供的特殊内存区域,一般为为I/O设备的附件保留。在I/O空间的内存位置和寄存器只能通过特殊的指定进行访问。例如:80X86家族的处理器有叫做in / out的特殊的I/O空间指令。相对内存空间而言。



ISR(中断服务程序)
See interrupt service routine. 



instruction pointer(指令指针)
A register in the processor that contains the address of the next instruction to be executed. Also known as a program counter.
包含下一条要执行指令地址的处理器中的寄存器。也叫程序计数器。
 
Interrupt(中断)
An asynchronous electrical signal from a peripheral to the processor. When the peripheral asserts this signal, we say that an interrupt occurs. When an interrupt occurs, the current state of the processor is saved and an interrupt service routine is executed. When the interrupt service routine exits, control of the processor is returned to whatever part of the software was previously running.
一个从外设到处理器的异步电信号。当外设发出这个信号,我们说一个中断发生。当一个中断发生,当前的处理器状态被保存并且中断服务程序开始运行。当中断服务程序退出,对处理器的控制权转到先前运行的那个软件上。



interrupt latency(中断延迟)
The amount of time between the assertion of an interrupt and the start of the associated interrupt service routine.
在中断发生和相关的中断服务程序运行之间的时间长短。
  
interrupt service routine(中断服务程序)
A piece of software executed in response to a particular interrupt. 
响应特定中断而运行的一小段软件。



interrupt type(中断类型)
A unique number associated with each interrupt.
和每一个中断相关联的唯一数字。



interrupt vector (中断向量)
The address of an interrupt service routine.
中断服务程序所在的地址。



interrupt vector table(中断向量表)
A table containing interrupt vectors and indexed by interrupt type. This table contains the processor"s mapping between interrupts and interrupt service routines and must be initialized by the programmer.
一个表格,包含由中断类型决定的中断向量和索引。这个表格包含中断与中断服务程序之间的处理器的映射,必须由程序员进行初始化。



intertask communication(进程间通讯)
A mechanism used by tasks and interrupt service routines to share information and synchronize their access to shared resources. The most common building blocks of intertask communication are semaphores and mutexes. 
一种被用来在任务和中断服务程序之间共享信息和同步它们对共享资源访问的机制。大部分进程间通讯的建立的基石是信号灯和互斥。



K
Kernel(内核)
An essential part of any multitasking operating system, the kernel contains just the scheduler and context-switch routine.
任何多任务操作系统的本质部分,内核仅仅包含调度程序和上下文切换进程。



L
Linker(连接程序)
A software development tool that accepts one or more object files as input and outputs a relocatable program. The linker is thus run after all of the source files have been compiled or assembled.
一种能把一个或更多目标文件组合成可输入和输出的可重定位程序的开发工具。连接程序在所有的源文件都被编译或汇编之后运行。



Locator(定位程序)
A software development tool that assigns physical addresses to the relocatable program produced by the linker. This is the last step in the preparation of software for execution by an embedded system and the resulting file is called an executable. In some cases, the locator"s function may be hidden within the linker.
一种分配物理地址给连接程序处理过的可重定位程序的软件开发工具。这是准备一个软件在嵌入式系统中运行的最后一步,并且结果文件叫做可执行的。在一些情况下,定位程序功能隐藏在连接程序中。



logic analyzer(逻辑分析仪)
A hardware debugging tool that can be used to capture the logic levels (0 or 1) of dozens, or even hundreds, of electrical signals in real-time. Logic analyzers can be quite helpful for debugging hardware problems and complex processor-peripheral interactions.
一种硬件调试工具,能捕获实时电信号的许多逻辑电平(0或1),逻辑分析仪在调试硬件问题和复杂的处理外设交互时相当有用。



最新嵌入式系统|常用词汇表1
评论】【加入收藏夹】【 】【关闭
※ 相关信息
无相关信息
※ 其他信息
访问数: | 共有条评论
发表评论
用户名:
密码:
验证码: 看不清楚,点击刷新
匿名发表

 搜索新闻
[提交投稿]  [管理投稿]
 最新新闻
 热点新闻
数据加载中..

网站地图
Autooo.Net 版权所有
Copyright © 2007--2012 All rights reserved